Prof. Jordan S. Penkower



    • Hebrew University (1970)
    • Maizer Foundation, Yeshiva University (1972-1973)
    • Memorial Foundation for Jewish Culture (1972-1973)
    • National Foundation for Jewish Culture (1973)
    • Invitation on behalf of: The Institute of Oriental Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Leningrad branch (August-September 1990)
    • The Rabbi Dr. Samuel Belkin Literary Award, Yeshiva University, 1995 – for my book: New Evidence for the Pentateuch Text in the Aleppo Codex.
    • My book, New Evidence for the Pentateuch Text in the Aleppo Codex, received two publication grants:
      Louis and Mina Epstein Foundation, at the Amercian Academy for Jewish Research (1992).
      Maizer Foundation, at Bar-Ilan University (1992).
    • Our book, The Bible in Rabbinic Interpretation, vol. 1: Hosea, received four grants:
      BIU Research Authority (1994; 1995).
      BIU Research Authority Publication Grant (1996).
      President of Israel’s Publication Grant Foundation - Am”os Foundation (1998).
      The prestigious American Academy for Jewish Research Publication Grant (2001).
    • Our book, The Bible in Rabbinic Interpretation, vol. 2: Joel and Amos, received a grant from the Beit Shalom Foundation (2007).
      It was later awarded a grant from the Dean, faculty of Jewish Studies (2009).


    Textual Transmission of the Bible: Manuscripts (and Masorah) and Printed Editions

    Biblical Exegesis: Rabbinic Exegesis; Medieval Exegesis

    Biblical Narrative

    Biblical Historiography – Chronicles

    Wisdom Literature




    1. "Maimonides and the Aleppo Codex”, Textus 9 (1981), pp. 39-128

    2. Transcription of the Massorah Magna of the Book of Isaiah in the Aleppo Codex, together with some scholarly notes, in: The Book of Isaiah, The Hebrew University Bible Project Edition, vol. 1: Jerusalem 1975; vol.2: 1981; vol. 3: 1993.

    3. “Bomberg’s First Bible Edition and the Beginning of his Printing Press”, Qiryat Sefer 58 (1983), pp. 586-604 (Heb.).

    4. “A Tenth-Century Pentateuch Manuscript from Jerusalem Corrected by Mishael ben Uziel (MsC3)”, Tarbiz 58 (1988), pp. 49-74 (Heb.).

    5. “A Renewed Inquiry into Massoret Ha-Massoret of Elijah Levita: Lateness of Vocalization and Criticism of the Zohar”, Italia 8 (1989), pp. 7-73 (Heb.)

    6. “A Pentateuch Fragment from the Tenth Century Attributed to Moses Ben-Asher (MS Firkowicz B188)”, Tarbiz 60 (1991), pp. 355-370 (Heb.).

    7. “The Tosaphist R. Menahem of Joigny and the Massoretic Work ‘Okhlah Ve-‘Okhla, The Halle Manuscript Recension”, Studies in Bible and Exegesis, vol. 3, Memorial Volume in Honor of Prof. M.H. Goshen-Gottstein, Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press 1993, pp. 287-315 (Heb.).

    8. “The Textual Transmission of Rashi’s Commentary to Ezekiel 27:17”, Tarbiz 63 (1994), pp. 219-233 (Heb.).

    9. “Minhag and Massorah: On the Recent Ashkenazi Custom of Double Vocalization of ‘Zeikher Amaleq’ (Deut. 25:19)”, Studies in Bible and Exegesis, vol. 4, Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press 1997, pp. 71-128 (Heb.).

    10. “The Chapter Divisions in the 1525 Rabbinic Bible”, Vetus Testamentu 48 (1998), pp. 350-374.

    11. “The Textual Transference of R. Samuel di Uzeda’s Commentary to Exodus 23:25 into the Commentary on the Pseudo-Jonathan Targum”, Asupat Qiryat Sefer: Musaf Le-Qiryat Sefer 68 (1998), pp. 127-149 (Heb.).

    12. Five articles, in: Dictionary of Biblical Interpretation, Nashville, Tenn.: Abingdon Press 1999, 12 pp.: “Ben-Asher, Aharon ben Moshe”; “Ben-Naphtali, Moshe Ben David”; “Bomberg, Daniel”; “Jacob ben Hayyim Ibn Adoniyahu”; “Rabbinic Bible”.

    13. “The Textual Transmission of Rashi, Qimhi and Targum Jonathan to Ezekiel 27:6”, Studies in Bible and Exegesis, vol. 5, Uriel Simon Jubilee Volume, Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press 2000, pp. 315-339 (Heb.).

    14. “The Verse Divisions in the Hebrew Bible”, Vetus Testamentum 50 (2000), pp. 379-393.

    15. “The Textual Transmission of Targum Jonathan and Qimhi to Ezekiel 23:20 and 34:18”, Shnaton LeHeqer Hamiqra VeHaMizrah HaQadum 13 (2002), pp. 247-270 (Heb.).

    16. “A Sheet of Parchment from a 10th or 11th Century Torah Scroll: Determining its Type among Four Traditions (Oriental, Sefardi, Ashkenazi, Yemenite)”, Textus 21 (2002), pp. 235-264.

    17. “The End of Rashi’s Commentary on Job: The Manuscripts and the Printed Editions (with three appendices)”, Jewish Studies Quarterly 10 (2003), pp. 18-48.

    18. “The Development of the Masoretic Bible”, in: The Jewish Study Bible (A. Berlin, M. Brettler, eds.), Oxford University Press: New York 2004, pp. 2077-2084 (double columns); second (revised and expanded) edition, New York 2014, pp. 2159-2165 (double columns). Now available online:…

    19. “S. D. Luzzato, Vowels and Accents, and the Date of the Zohar”, Italia, Conference Supplement Series, 2, Jerusalem 2004, pp. 79-130.

    20. “Rashi’s Commentary on Ezekiel: On the Occasion of its New Edition in Mikra’ot Gedolot HaKeter”, Studies in Bible and Exegesis, vol. 7, Menahem Cohen Jubilee Volume, Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press 2005, pp, 425-474 (Heb.).

    21. “Rashi’s Corrections to his Commentary on the Prophets”, Shnaton LeHeqer Hamiqra VeHaMizrah HaQadum 15 (2005), pp. 185-211 (Heb.).

    22. “The Form of the Biblical Accent Zarqa and the Dating of the Zohar”, Kabbalah 13 (Los Angeles 2005), pp. 271-291 (Heb.).

    23. “Dating the Paragraphs on Biblical Accents in the Bahir”, Kabbalah 14 (Los Angeles 2006), pp. 329-345 (Heb.).

    24. “The Canonization of Rashi’s Commentary on the Pentateuch”, in: Study and Knowledge in Jewish Thought, H. Kreisel (ed.), Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Press (2006), pp. 123-146 (Heb.);

    25. “Corrections and Additions to Rashi’s Commentary on Joshua by Rashi, His Students, and Anonymous Correctors”, Shnaton LeHeqer Hamiqra VeHaMizrah HaQadum 16 (2006), pp. 205-229 (Heb.).

    26. “Rashi’s Corrections to his Commentary on the Pentateuch”, Jewish Studies: An Internet Journal 6 (2007), pp. 141-188 (Heb.).

    27. “Minhag and Massorah: HW’ – Masculine or Feminine: Three Cases in the Pentateuch: Lev. 13:22; 18:23; Num. 18:19”, Kenishta 3 (2007), pp. 187-230 (Heb.).

    28. “The Text of the Pentateuch in the Masoretic Codices Written by Early Ashkenazi Sages in the 10th-12th Centuries”, Shnaton LeHeqer Hamiqra VeHaMizrah HaQadum 17 (2007), pp. 279-308 (Heb.).

    29. “Two Scholars Mentioned in the Manuscripts of Rashi’s Commentaries on the Bible: R. Yehuda and R. Yehuda HaDarshan”, Shai LeSarah Yefet (Sara Japhet Jubilee Volume), Jerusalem 2008, pp. 233-247 (Heb.).

    30. “Rashi’s Corrections to his Commentaries on Joshua and Kings”, Studies in Bible and Exegesis, vol. 8, Elazar Touito Jubilee Volume (2008), pp. 335-383 (Heb.).

    31. “The Bible Text Used by Rashi as Reflected in his Commentaries on the Bible”, in: Rashi – The Man and His Work, A. Grossman, S. Japhet (eds.), Jerusalem: Merkaz Shazar 5769/2008, vol. 1, pp. 99-122 (Heb.).

    32. “The First Printed Edition of Norzi’s Introduction to Minhat Shai: Pisa 1819”, Quntres: An Online Journal for the History, Culture and Art of the Hebrew Book, I, 1 (2009), pp. 9-22 (

    33. “The French and German Glosses (Le‛azim) in the Pseudo-Rashi Commentary on Chronicles (12th century Narbonne): The Manuscripts and the Printed Editions”, JSQ, 16 (2009), pp. 255-305.

    34. “Minhat Shai by R. Yedidiah Norzi: Printed Editions of the Work and Printed Bible Editions that were Corrected According to it (circa 1725 – 2006)”, Italia 19 (2009), pp. 53 – 98 (Heb.).

    35. “Further Corrections of Rashi to his Commenatary on the Pentateuch”, Or Le-Mayer, Studies in Bible, Semitic Languages, Rabbinic Literature, and Ancient Civilizations, Presented to Mayer Gruber on the Occasion of his Sixty-Fifth Birthday, Be’er Sheva 2010, pp. 363-409 (Heb.).

    36. “A Bukharan Pentateuch Manuscript from the End of the Fifteenth Century (with an Appendix on MS Geneva, Geniza 99)”, Israel – The Prof. Israel Yeivin Memorial Volume, Jerusalem 2011, pp.155-178 (Heb.).

    37. “’Or Torah by R. Menahem de Lonzano: Printed Editions of the Work and Printed Pentateuch Editions that were Corrected According to it (1618 – 2010)”, Italia 21 (2012), pp. 33-89 (Heb.).

    38. “A 14th Century Ashkenazi Hebrew Bible Codex with Later Inscriptions in Latin and Hebrew by Luther, Melanchthon, Jonas and Ziegler”, Codices Manuscripti 82/83 (2012), pp. 43-60 (double columns per page), with 18 photographs.

    39.  “Corrections to Rashi’s Commentary on Amos by Rashi and his Students”, in: Zer Rimonim, Mehqarim baMiqra uveFarshanuto Muqdashim leProf. Rimon Kasher, M. Avioz, E. Assis, Y. Shemesh (eds.), International Voices in Biblical Studies, Society of Biblical Literature 2013, pp. 425-448 (Heb.). ( web.pdf)

    40. “Fragments of Six Early Torah Scrolls: Open and Closed Sections, The Layout of Ha’azinu and of the End of Deuteronomy”, Manuscrits hébreux et arabes: Mélanges en l’honneur de Colette Sirat, J. Olszowy-Schlanger & N. de Lange (eds.), Bibliologia 38, Brepols: Turnhout 2014, pp. 39-61.

    41. “The Ashkenazi Pentateuch Tradition as Reflected in the Erfurt Hebrew Bible Codices and Torah Scrolls”, in: Erfurter Schriften zur Jüdischen Geschichte, Band 3: Zu Bild und Text im jüdisch-christlichen Kontext im Mittelalter, F. Bussert, S. Laubenstein, M. Stürzebecher (eds.), Erfurt 2015, pp. 118-141. 

    42. “The Corrections by Rashi to his Commentary on Hosea”, in: Marbeh Hokmah, Studies in the Bible and the Ancient Near East in Loving Memory of Victor Avigdor Hurowitz, S. Yona, E. L. Greenstein, M. I. Gruber, P. Machinist, S. M. Paul (eds.), Winona Lake, Indiana: Eisenbrauns 2015, pp. 197*-228* (Heb.).

    43. "An Esther Scroll from the 15th Century: Determining its Type among Five Traditions (Oriental, Sefardi, Ashkenazi, Italian, Yemenite)", Textus 26 (2016), pp. 209-270.

    44. “An Eleventh- or Twelfth-Century Masoretic Bible Codex (Jeremiah, Zachariah, Proverbs, and Chronicles): Its Place among Eastern Codices”, Textus 27 (2018), pp. 85-110.

    45. “The 12th-13th Century Torah Scroll in Bologna: How it Differs from Contemporary Scrolls”, The Ancient Sefer Torah in Bologna, Features and History, M. Perani (ed.), Leiden and Boston 2019, pp. 135-166.

    46. "The Biblical Variants between Sura and Nehardea - Text, Vocalization, Open and Closed Sections", JSIJ 18 (2020) 1-55.

    47. “Graphic Fillers and Marginal Corrections in the Twelfth-Thirteenth Century Bologna Torah Scroll”, “In the Dwelling of a Sage Lie Precious Treasures”: Essays in Jewish Studies in Honor of Shnayer Z. Leiman, Y. Berger, C. Milikowsky (eds.), New York 2020, pp. 33-49.

    48. “An Eleventh-Century Eastern Masoretic Codex of the Pentateuch”, Textus 30 (2021), pp. 152-170.

    49. “The First Books Published by Daniel Bomberg”, La Bibliofilia CXXIII (2021), pp. 303-328.

    50. “Corrections and Additions to Rashi’s Commentary on Amos by Rashi and his Students”, in: From Theodulf to Rashi and Beyond: Texts, Techniques, and Transfer in Western European Exegesis (800 - 1100), Johannes Heil, Sumi Shimahara (eds.), Leiden: Brill, 2022, pp. 427-462.

    51. “Four Additions to Rashi’s Commentary on Jeremiah”, in: Zokhrah LeAharon, Studies in Bible and its Exegesis, Memorial Volume for Prof. Aharon Mondschein, Malka Schenwald (ed.), Holon: Talpiot-Academic College of Education, 2022, pp. 339-373 (Heb.). 


    Short Articles
    52. [Brief analysis of MS Leipzig, Universitätsbibliothek B.H. fol. 1 (Ger.)], in: A. David, “Die Hebräische Handschriftensammlung der Universitätsbibliothek Leipzig – Bibliotheca Albertina”, in: Baussteine einer jüdische Geschichte der Universität Leipzig, S. Wenderhorst (ed.), Leipzig 2006, pp. 306-308.

    53. Brief book review of the new edition of Qimhi’s Sefer Mikhlol, HaMayan 63 (2023), pp. 109-110.

    54. “Norzi, Jedidiah Solomon,” in: Encyclopedia of the Bible and its Reception (EBR) vol. 21, ed. Contance M. Furey et al (Berlin, Boston: Walter De Gruyter, 2023), pp. 869-873.

                                                                    LECTURES ON VIDEO

    55. Ma‘aseh Bereshit: The First Books Published by Bomberg (Heb.), the Schocken Institute, Jerusalem, 9 April 2018; on the occasion of the opening of the exhibition: Man/Book – Jews, Converts and Christians Printing Hebrew in Daniel Bomberg’s Printing House in Venice.

    56. Jewish and Christian Art Reflecting Midrashim on the Book of Jonah (Heb.),  2 September 2021, part of the Book Launch on zoom, in honor of the publication: The Bible in Rabbinic Exegesis, Volume III. The Book of Jonah (below, BOOKS, no. 7).…


    1. New Evidence for the Pentateuch Text in the Aleppo Codex, Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press, 1992, 144 pp. (Heb.).
    [Awarded the Rabbi Dr. Samuel Belkin Literary Award for 1995, Yeshiva University].

    2. Rashi’s Commentary on the Book of Ezekiel, A new edition based on seven manuscripts (and in comparison to the first printed edition), with punctuation and sources marked; Rashi’s Responsa on the Book of Ezekiel, A new edition based on four manuscripts; both in: Mikraot Gedolot HaKeter, The Book of Ezekiel, Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press, 2000 (Heb.).
    [For the introduction to this new edition of Rashi, see article #17].

    3. M. Ben-Yashar, I. Gottlieb, J.S. Penkower, The Bible in Rabbinic Exegesis, Volume I: The Book of Hosea, Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press 2003, 804 pp. (Heb.). [Prof. Penkower was responsible for chapters 3-6; 11-12].

    4. The Dates of Composition of The Zohar and The Book Bahir: The History of Biblical Vocalization and Accentuation as a Tool for Dating Kabbalistic Works, Los Angeles 2010 (Heb.).

    5. Masorah and Text Criticism in the Early Modern Mediterranean: Moses Ibn Zabara and Menahem de Lonzano, Jerusalem: Magnes Press 2014. 

         Five reviews (scroll down in the following link):

    6. M. Ben-Yashar, J.S. Penkower, The Bible in Rabbinic Exegesis, Volume II: The Books of Joel and Amos, Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press 2014, 928 pp. (Heb.).
    [Prof. Penkower was responsible for Amos, chapters 3-8].

    7. M. Ben-Yashar, J.S. Penkower, The Bible in Rabbinic Exegesis, Volume III: The Book of Jonah, Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press 2021, 279 pp. (Heb.).


    Books Edited
    8. Studies in Bible and Exegesis, vol. 7, Menahem Cohen Jubilee Volume (Y.Klein, Y. Ofer, J.S. Penkower, S. Vargon, eds.), Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University Press 2005, 510 pp. (Heb.).



    Last Updated Date : 07/04/2023